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Resources and potential for geothermal energy in Italy.
Italian geothermal resources, aimed at the production of electricity, have so far been developed above all in Tuscany, through about forty medium- and small-sized plants which currently deliver a power of 915.8 MW, producing 5.9 TWh a year, corresponding to just 5% of the RES used in Italy. The electricity that can be produced from Italian geothermal potential is 200 TWh, corresponding to 60% of the gross domestic consumption of electricity in Italy (329 TWh in 2015). The main technologies used in Italy are: i) The use of conventional plants for the production of electricity through total re-injection of fluids and ORC plants at a depth of 3--5 km. ii) The use of district heating and cooling systems with boreholes of up to 3 km. iii) Geoexchange plants for cooling and heating with shallow ($< 400$ m) drilling. The forecasts for the production of electricity and renewable heating and cooling systems are of a tripling by 2050, especially trying to remove the obstacles in bureaucracy and communication, which have so far slowed down the use of this relevant energy source. The objective of this communication is to present new methodologies for the diffusion of this energy with zero environmental impact.